March 12, 2008 the international organization “Reporters without Borders” (Reporters Without Borders) under the patronage of UNESCO, to draw public attention to the problem of free access to the Web around the world, held a day of free speech on the Internet (Online Free Expression Day).
“Reporters Without Borders” – an international non-governmental organization for the protection of human rights protected by the freedom of expression around the world. It was based in Paris (France) in 1985. Purpose of the organization – to fight against censorship, for the release of the journalists who have suffered because of their professional activities.
Each year the organization publishes its own list of “Internet enemies” (Internet Enemies).
On the very first day of free speech on the Internet March 12, 2008, “Reporters Without Borders” invites users to visit the organization’s website to protest against censorship, which some governments have abused, and demand more rights for Internet users.
“Reporters Without Borders” encouraged to take part in the event in nine countries, which, according to the organization, “pose the greatest risk to the network.” Within 24 hours, from 11 am Paris time (14.00 MSK) March 12 to 11 hours on March 13, Internet users took part in the “Reporters Without Borders” , which took place in Burma, China, North Korea, Cuba, Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia , Turkmenistan and Vietnam.
During the day, users can create avatars for your blogs, to select messages to their banners. Was also published another list of “enemies of the Internet”.
In 2008, the list of states – “Internet enemies” were entered from 15 countries . Among them, Belarus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.
It was also announced that 11 other states are under the supervision of “Reporters without borders”.These countries are not sent to jail bloggers and actively censor the Internet. However, according to the organization, they are actively trying to limit free speech on the web. The list includes Tajikistan, Bahrain, Eritrea, Gambia, Jordan, Libya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, UAE and Yemen.
In a report published in the Day of the freedom of speech on the Internet in 2012, the organization “Reporters without borders” as “enemies of the Internet” named 12 countries that have different ways restrict their access to information in the “World Wide Web”. The list includes Belarus, Bahrain, Burma, China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.
The report argues that China has increased pressure on private Internet companies to force them to work more closely with government. At the same time, Iran and Vietnam, a wave of arrests of Internet users, the publication of which cause concern among the authorities of those countries.
According to the report, tough action on Internet freedom by the authorities in Syria, where for two years in a struggle between the government and the armed opposition, but on the contrary, helps to activate Internet users.
In addition to the rating of “enemies of the Internet”, human rights activists also compiled a list of “countries that are under surveillance.” The list includes Australia, Egypt, Eritrea, France, South Korea, Sri Lanka and others. New countries are on the list in 2012 were India and Kazakhstan.
On the same list in 2010, including Russia. The drafters of the list noted that in Russia, widespread cyber attacks against a number of online resources. Also, “Reporters without Borders” drew attention to a series of arrests of Russian bloggers and users of “World Wide Web”. Detention, according to human rights activists, carried out in order to avoid discussing topics related to the political situation.
In Russia, the blogosphere and social networks have become a serious public platform for the current government and the opposition in the two election campaigns – in December 2011 parliamentary and presidential in early March 2012. December 4, 2011 the day of the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation several major online resources, including the website of the Independent Association “Voice” radio station “Echo of Moscow”, Slon.Ru, magazines “Big City”, The New Times, the election of the project ” Antikarusel ” were DDoS-attacks .
At the end of 2012 Russia was ranked 148 th in the annual ranking of press freedom international human rights organization “Reporters without Borders”. The organization noted that in 2012, Russia held a protest on an unprecedented scale, and the civil society has never before been so active, but the authorities have responded by adopting a series of punitive measures: the introduction of criminal libel, tightening control over the Internet and a ban on funding for human rights organizations abroad.
The urgency of the Day free speech on the Internet emphasize demonstration against the law of ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement), which requires stricter monitoring of compliance of copyright on the Internet and the information technology market. At the end of January 2012 agreement signed by 22 European states . Opponents of the decision ACTA, which include as many European experts, lawyers, journalists and politicians, believe that the program is fraught with great danger to the future of the Internet, freedom of speech and human rights. It contains too vague requirements that can optionally be used to enhance social control in the Internet. And in the case of adoption of ACTA to track what sites visited or that person, what he downloaded, do not need any permission of the court or the prosecutor.Furthermore, the agreement would allow ACTA customs inspect laptops, iPods and phones for illegal content. Largely due to the numerous protests as general Internet users and experts 4 July 2012 the European Parliament rejected the international agreement to combat counterfeiting ACTA.
The material is based on the RIA Novosti and open source